Wednesday, February 22, 2012

Place Frances Alice Kellor in the California Curriculum to Fulfill SB48

In 2011 California Governor Jerry Brown signed SB48 into law, thereby requiring that the contributions of lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender (LGBT) persons get taught in his state’s public schools.  While districts have content and grade-level discretion, they must do so in beginning in 2012. And by 2019 textbooks should overtly include LGBT characters. To fulfill the mandate of SB48, Frances Alice Kellor (1873 – 1952) should enter California’s curriculum and textbooks. 
Most obviously, conservative moral concerns plague the introduction of LGBT role models and curriculum into the schools. Judy Chiasson is the Program Coordinator for Human Relations, Diversity, and Equity for California’s largest school district - the Los Angeles Unified School District.  She summarized the public relations problem, “People sexualize homosexuality and romanticize heterosexuality.”[i] In other words, to make LGBT figures less threatening, we must see them as people rather than simply a sexual orientation and gender challenges.
 Kellor’s Victorian attitudes towards relationships make her a perfect LGBT role model. Her 47-year relationship with Mary Elizabeth Dreier serves as a model of devotion and monogamy in an LGBT relationship. Their private letters hint strongly at sexuality. They shared a home and grew old together.  The two went out frequently, yet maintained a strong sense of public decorum. Their relationship demonstrates that LGBT persons can have conservative romantic relationships.
Kellor also helps challenge the sexualizing of homosexuality due to the broad range of issues for which she worked.  Using people victims of gay-bashing or LGBT rights advocates in the curriculum will not counter critics of SB48.  Including such figures will strike them as bald propaganda for “the LGBT lifestyle” rather than substantive content. Since Kellor engaged in a wide array of issues at the highest level, we can include her accomplishments and include her LGBT status incidentally. 
Kellor got suffrage put on the Progressive and Republican national party platforms. She ran much of Theodore Roosevelt 1912 and Charles Evans Hughes’ 1916 Presidential campaigns. She ran State and Federal Bureaus and more. She was seminal in changing the way we currently view criminality in our nation. She merits inclusion in the curriculum regardless of her LGBT status. In fact, all immigration historians consider Kellor the main leader of the Americanization movement. And California’s Department of Education curriculum requires that teachers “trace the effect Americanization movement.”[ii] As such educators are already nearly mandated to discuss her.

Educators have not known how to implement SB48.  In their efforts to do so, many naturally reach towards the teaching of the transgender Stonewall riots which were seminal in the launching of the modern LGBT rights movement. In doing so they make LGBT status analogous to the African – American civil rights movement. Again, in using this example, educators reinforce the idea that LGBT persons have no significance other than arguing for their own rights.  Furthermore in putting them behind the shadows of the larger civil rights movement, you overshadow issues particular to the LGBT community.   
Publically wearing male attire during the Progressive era made a statement.  While demure about her sexual life, Kellor publically denounced gender stereotypes and the “sex cloisters” they promulgated.  Her calls for women to take on more masculine personas can spark very valuable classroom discussions.  By including her photos and writing on gender roles, LGBT issues do not need to simply exist as an analogy for African-American rights; Kellor’s inclusion overtly facilitates the investigation of LGBT issues’ particular import and social resonance. 
Kellor’s writing and adventures will engage today’s students.  The sound bite length gossip columns she wrote for her small hometown paper of Coldwater, Michigan are very accessible. Students will enjoy her pronouncements on basketball and her tour of African-American women’s prisons in the South. Articles covering her embattled women’s train for Presidential candidate Hughes make her an adventurous character. And, the centrality of immigration to her work will make her relevant to many of our current student population. 
Teachers will love the fact that Kellor will work so well in the class. She raises provocative topics for debate. Was society to blame for the high crime rate of African-American women in the reconstruction-era South? Should we open our borders and fight for immigrants? Does industry create the unrest it fears? Do sports make women more masculine? If so, should we then increase their prevalence? And when she raises questions, she always provides easy-to-read primary sources with which students may interact. 
To fully appreciate Kellor, this paper will embed the argument for her inclusion in California curriculum in the story of her life.  As I do so, I will include lesson plans angles that teachers could easily deploy. Kellor, again, is the perfect LGBT role model because her life contained so many riches outside of her LGBT status. An amazing role model who only happened to be LGBT will get past critics more easily than one who solely stood for LGBT rights. 
Rags to riches stories inspire students. Kellor lived one.  Mary Sprau Kellor, a single mother, washed clothes and did domestic work in Coldwater, Michigan. She moved young Frances Alice Kellor to the small town as a toddler. The small size of this town of cultural and economic aspiration made young Kellor’s poverty public. Indignation over this fact likely fueled her long focus on gendered oppression.  She moved from a small town outsider to fame.  In doing so she changed her name from Alice Kellar to Frances Kellor. Students will identify with young Kellor’s self-creation.
Teachable lessons arise from Kellor’s time in Coldwater.  The gossip column she wrote for the Coldwater Republican provides an easy hook to teach about the transition from the transition from agricultural 19th century America to our industrial and post-industrial world.  Next to “A double pant race is on the slate for Thursday forenoon, Sept. 28th, at the county fair”[iii] [iv] young Alice wrote, ““M. E. Wattles received $76 for two cans of peppermint oil last week, E. R. Clark & Co. paying that amount. The peppermint was grown on his farm in Matteson.”[v]  Alice’s cute Coldwater writing helps students reach California’s grade eight goal of understanding “changing social and political conditions” brought on by the Industrial Revolution.[vi]  
Kellor was the third woman to graduate from Cornell with a law degree. And while her being forced to live in a coed dorm, within a female community, could spark discussions of the pros and cons of single-sex education, Kellor always takes us further. After gaining legitimacy for the team, Kellor went on to coach basketball and develop an aggressive gendered theory of sport.
In the early 20th century women’s sports were very controversial.  Critics worried that such activities would make the women masculine. Starting with her 1898 article A Psychological Basis for Physical Culture, Kellor twisted and reversed the critics’ logic. She argued that women needed sports precisely because they could make them more masculine.  This was necessary due to women increasingly leading lives outside the confines of the home. Kellor can help teachers meet the grade 11 California curriculum standards require discussing “the changing role of women in society.”[vii]
Mixing sports and an easy style, Kellor provides primary source materials that can painlessly and surreptitiously guide students into women’s and gender studies. Again, her controversial statements will elicit discussion easily.  She derides females for being “indifferent to any form of morality other than the virtue of their own sex” instead of examining social issues.[viii]  She denounced women’s feigned helplessness and “morbid” femininity, as well as the domestic sphere itself.[ix] Using Kellor, we can ask about women’s traditional roles and to what extent we might wish to challenge them.
Our LGBT heroine argued that we blend gender discussions into physical education courses. This might sound strange, as physical education courses usually do not include discussions of issues or theory. In her book Athletic Games in the Education of Women, she argued that the active stance sports inculcated in women, as well as the cooperative values and the democratic spirit wherein “pull” meant nothing, gave athletic games meaning. Perhaps physical education courses should include gender studies issues. If so, they need credit our coach Kellor for the contribution.
Long prior to Kellor, people held that crime resulted from personal moral failings.  In Kellor’s day, the world’s leading criminal sociologist, Cesaer Lombroso, convinced the populace that some people had biological predispositions to crime. Kellor helped launch the view that environmental social ills breed crime.[x] To defeat Lombroso, our subject replicated his studies using an early predecessor of the polygraph, the Kymograph. She measured northern white women in colleges and prisons. Then armed with this data, she traveled 3,277 miles through eight southern states measuring female African-American penitentiary inmates. Great primary sources resulted.[xi]
Controversy sells. We cannot but cringe at Kellor’s saying of African-Americans that, “no race outside of barbarism had so low a grade of domestic life. In none other the child received so little training.”[xii] Despite some positive evaluations of African – American life, Kellor considers African – American culture problematic. Yet, referring to slavery, she relates, “Negroes have not had quite forty years in which to create and establish all the sound principles of domestic life.”[xiii]  She laments, “It is difficult for them to reach an ideal of self respect when no one has faith in that ideal for them.”[xiv] Kellor argues that African-Americans’ failings stem from the institutionalized discrimination and brutal racism of the South.
Her evocative writing on the subject raises great debate topics. Does her blaming of society take too much responsibility from the individual? Can we claim that the majority culture deserves blame for African – American crime without saying something is flawed in the resultant African-American mores? The teachers who bring these questions into the present, will have explosive discussions on their hands. Thus including Kellor’s work will address California’s state requirements to teach critical thinking.  More specifically, California’s 8th grade standards require that we look at slavery’s “effect on black Americans” and the region’s “cultural development.”[xv] Including Kellor here would show that LGBT figures did not only contribute in the 1960s.
In the early 1900s more women worked as domestic maids than any other profession. Kellor herself had to drop out of high school to help her mother work as a domestic worker. So a personal animus likely fueled her undercover investigation of the exploitation of domestic workers. In another personal note, upon moving to New York, our role model began her 47-year relationship with her life partner Mary Elizabeth Dreier. Dreier headed the Triangle Shirtwaist Factory investigation that killed women and the New York branch of the Women’s Trade Union League.
Out of Work: A Study of Employment Agencies: Their Treatment of the Unemployed, and Their Influence Upon Homes and Business detailed her exploration of the exploitation of domestic workers.  Published in 1904, Kellor “omitted tables and statistical details, at the risk of being called unscientific” because she wished to speak to a broad audience.[xvi] To this end she also told her stories in Harper’s Bazaar and The Ladies’ Home Journal. Students will feel like their peering back into the private lives of women as they read articles in these magazines they still see on newsstands today. Advanced scholars should ponder if Kellor has been omitted from intellectual history for seeking popular audiences. But youth will just enjoy reading from old issues of popular magazines that still exist.
These popular articles and the Out of Work’s description of Kellor’s descent into the toil by domestic workers would fit nicely into California’s grade eight curriculum.  Students are to explore the “depth of poverty and unemployment experienced in teeming cities.”  Also the “contribution of immigrants to the building of cities and the economy.”[xvii]  Kellor follows women into the pits of exploitation.  Herein we also hear about the impact of racism on various groups.  In Out of Work, Kellor explores the disparate impact of poverty on immigrant women and African – American women coming migrating from the South.  The many vignettes Kellor provides in this regard will grab the attention of students. 
Kellor’s first official position working with immigrants raises transgender issues.  At the age of 32, she became the first woman to head a New York State agency when she took the position of chief of the Bureau of Industries and Immigrants. In this capacity she took the very feminine and famous settlement house worker Lillian Wald to industrial sites. Our eighth and eleventh grade curriculum include Jane Addams and settlement houses.[xviii] Students can compare and contrast Kellor’s male image and tours of industrial sites with the motherly image that Addams and Wald portray as they open ‘homes’ for immigrants. Classes can discuss why their textbooks now focus on the more feminine leaders of the time. Kellor should provide a gendered corollary to the already prominent place of settlement homes, Jane Addams and immigration in our existing curriculum.
The very name of the Bureau of Industries and Immigrants suggests a view of immigrants we often miss. When US History courses discuss the “Red Scare” and the “Red Menace” we focus on the loyalty of immigrants.  In this context California asks teachers to discuss the Palmer Raids. Kellor asks us to look at the conditions that might have evoked the radicalism and terrorism that led to the Palmer raids.  She relentlessly denounced industries that exploited immigrants as ‘un-American’ and in need of ‘Americanization.’ As the head of a pro-immigrant organization, Kellor publicized the feeling of unfairness that Palmer’s deportation efforts caused in immigrants.  Kellor’s sensitivity to immigrants and damning of industries provides interesting fodder for extended discussions of anti-communism.[xix]
In 1912, the New York Times proclaimed that a year prior anyone who suggested that women would take a leading role in Presidential campaigns would have been “thought mad.”[xx] Yet when Kellor temporarily sidelined her immigration work to serve on the Progressive Party’s six-member Executive Committee Administrative Board backing Theodore Roosevelt’s Presidential candidacy, she rewrote gender normalcy.[xxi] During the campaign Roosevelt boasted, “It’s been a great thing to see how women like Miss Addams and Miss Kellor, and women like that, have gone into the campaign.”[xxii]  Discussions of the impact of sexism on women can profit from the many examples Kellor’s life provides.
As a Presidential candidate Roosevelt exclaimed, “I always favored woman’s suffrage, but only tepidly, until my association with women like Jane Addams and Frances Kellor, who desired it as one means of enabling them to render better and more efficient service, changed me into a zealous instead of a lukewarm adherent of the cause.”[xxiii]  This statement provides us with another justification for her inclusion in public school curriculum; she played a crucial and unheralded role in getting women the vote. And, the pairing of her name with Addams and Roosevelt’s undermines any claims that putting LGBT persons into curriculum requires elevating minor figures.
Roosevelt lost the campaign. From her position as defeated election leader Kellor soared to the peak of her creativity.  She invented a form of government previously unknown called ‘The Service.’ The Service, had local groups that selected members to go to State conventions.  These, in turn, sent representatives to National Service conventions. All of the Service participants researched and publicized legislation. Thus, while the Progressive Party’s political branch worked on electing politicians, her organization focused on issues.  Furthermore, rather than only asking people to participate in politics every four years, the Service inspired constant activism.
The Service has been portrayed as the peak of the Progressive Era.[xxiv]  As such, it fits well in grade eleven discussions of the Progressive movement.  However, Kellor’s work spans the curriculum. California State Standards for Grade Twelve “Principles of American Democracy and Economics” courses have a standard wherein students “being informed on civic issues, volunteering and performing public service, and servicing in the military.”[xxv] Later Kellor advocated civilian training programs. The speak directly to the grade twelve topic of “the scope and limits of rights and obligations as democratic citizens, the relationships among them, and how they are secured.”[xxvi] While too theoretical for lower grades, Kellor even provides engaging controversial standards-based materials that can speak to our oldest students.
When the Service failed, Kellor returned to street activism. The articles describing her taking Theodore Roosevelt to homeless shelters are entertaining. She advocated that Ellis Island get made a homeless shelter and launched “Bundle Day” wherein all sectors of society mobilized to get clothes to the poor.  Roosevelt visited the Bundle Day headquarters. When asked, he would not pose for photographs alone, “insisting that Miss Kellor stand with him.”[xxvii] She beamed, “The biggest thing about Bundle Day is it is socializing the city – everybody is lending a hand.”[xxviii] At the end of these efforts eight hundred homeless people threw a party for Kellor.[xxix] Students will develop a sense of awe for their own activist potential when studying this LGBT role model.
Again, California’s State standards specifically require that the Americanization movement Kellor led be taught. For Americanization Day, July 4th, 1918, Kellor’s organization had 70,000 immigrants march up New York’s 5th Avenue in their traditional costumes. Native Americans and several hundred Filipinos had floats. The Bolivian float had llamas.[xxx]  With just six weeks of organizing time, starting in 1915, Kellor’s group created such events in over 150 cities.[xxxi] These events stressed that while ethnic groups battled each other overseas in the First World War, on our soil all of us American residents were united.
With Americanization Day, interestingly, Kellor can be said to have launched a prototype of multiculturalism. Again, Kellor’s work can lead us into discussions of fears of immigrant sedition, the Sedition Laws themselves, and even the World War II internment of Japanese – Americans. But even more pervasively, in the State’s curricular “Goal of Democratic Understanding and Civic Values” there is a “National Identity” section.  This section contains two pages of topics related to immigrants that must get taught across all grade levels. Herein the State instructs we must teach that “true patriotism” . . . “unites as one people the descendants of many cultures.”[xxxii] Few events exemplify this ideal than Kellor’s Americanization Day parades. And the State saying teaching this ideal is a central goal of our curriculum justifies teaching about Kellor at any grade level.
While running the Americanization Day events Kellor created her Americanization curriculum for the State of New York. Amazingly, it does not refer to history or culture. Presaging today’s curriculum, she advocates classes using “copies of legislative bills, pictures, samples of ballot and charts.” And every lesson should open with “a discussion of current events.”[xxxiii] Every time we discuss current events in classes, we have an opportunity to discuss their origins and mention Kellor’s centrality. Furthermore, were we to read Kellor’s curriculum itself in our classes we would have woven together immigrants, our current students’ lives as students, the grasp of primary sources, and history. But her centrality in the launch of current-events based learning means we can invoke her name with justification at all grade levels. 
Kellor’s Americanization curriculum also asks that teachers, “tell your students of the various forms of welfare work in which they can take an active part. Have them observe their community life, analyze it, and cooperate for its improvement.”[xxxiv] The curriculum prods teachers, ““Do not only talk about community life but get your students to think along lines of civic betterment.”[xxxv] They are to note problems and act together to remedy them. In cooperating for community improvement immigrants will see, “a mutual understanding with an aroused interest for community life will bring definite action for the ‘New Citizenship,’ the citizenship of service.”[xxxvi]  Using the same word that named her Progressive Service form of government, herein she helped instigate what we today call Service Learning.
California’s Department of Education is working hard to integrate Service Learning into the curriculum. In 2008-09, they had over 1.8 million hours of service performed by students.[xxxvii]  And they aim to have at least one Service Learning experience for students in each grade span (K-5, 6-8, and 9-12). When these projects get introduced, discussions of Kellor and the historical emergence of Service Learning would fit easily. Kellor thought Service Learning would help immigrants become citizens with a stake in their communities and, by extension, America. Overtly discussing Kellor’s rational will make the Service Learning projects more meaningful.  Again, with this lesson we bring in an LGBT heroine without only talking about LGBT issues.
To support Charles Evans Hughes’ 1916 candidacy for President of the United States, Kellor loaded up a train of activist women and they had a “31-day $40,000 transcontinental trip, during which they crossed 28 States, held 195 meetings, and addressed about 500,000 persons.”[xxxviii] A writer beamed, “No military staff on the eve of battle ever suffered so amiably the ready criticism of co-workers . . . With Frances Kellor presiding the meeting was opened with historical discussion of men’s campaign trains and the masculine way of working.”[xxxix] This exciting embattled train ride would engage students as it raised discussions of gender politics and debates on suffrage.
With Kellor’s encouragement, Hughes became the second Presidential candidate to put suffrage on a national party platform. But to not alienate men, the train could only go in states that already had suffrage.[xl] This limitation happened, our masculine heroine asserted, due to “the inability of the Republican leaders to grasp the idea that women can do campaign work without arguing for suffrage.”[xli] She hoped the train would refute the idea that women “have inalienable tendencies like prohibition and suffrage which they cannot keep out of politics.”[xlii] She partially accepted the limitation concerning their mobility because she thought constant activism more important than votes. This engaging journey perfectly fulfills the grade eight and nine curricular topic of “women’s suffrage and changing social roles.”[xliii]
But, again, the main draw of this campaign, as so many of Kellor’s efforts stems from their potential for engaging student interest.  Kellor’s strong voice makes gives her character.  She never utters a tepid assertion.  This train journey was controversial and                         hecklers confronted them everywhere they went. Upon arriving in a city, the female campaigners for Presidential candidate Hughes often dispersed in cars to speak at various street corners. Many of the speeches happened in factories. Their heated rhetoric against President Woodrow Wilson’s racism led to a large African-American torchlight procession.  Weapons were drawn and fights broke out as they campaigned in Oregon.  This trip even featured over 30 cities in California. Kellor is not a dry, remote figure.  Students will admire her.
In 1921 America enacted very tough immigration restrictions. As this happened, our visionary subject argued that we needed to enter treaties to protect “international human beings.” Her globalist position makes a stark contrast to the nationalist position the country had adopted. Kellor’s friends bought her a media organization. As the single largest advertisers in foreign language papers, she helped stave off government attempts to ban foreign language newspapers and asked immigrants to stay in America.  But the country clearly did not share her support of open borders. Her efforts in this context could bring historical background to the Court’s overturning of proposition 187. And it could temper enthusiasm for democracy in Grade Twelve Principles of American Democracy courses.
While fighting for international human beings, Kellor started researching international treaties.  Her studies of the League of Nations was said to have influenced the current form of the United Nations. In doing so she argued that the devastation of the First World War and nations preparing for a possible Second World War would lead us to a shortage of immigrants. Our LGBT leader’s easy-to-read primary sources on this topic can help teachers meet the California State Standards Grade 10 requirement to “Describe the effects of the [First World] war and resulting peace treaties on population movement.”[xliv] And so, as she bowed out of Americanization, Kellor provided yet another opportunity to align her work to the current California State Standards.
In Kellor we have an extraordinary figure who can serve as a LGBT role model in many contexts. In fact, California’s grade two standards require teachers  “explain how heroes from long ago and the recent past have made a difference in others’ lives.”[xlv] In having made immigrants feel welcome, easing workers’ lives, explaining the situation of African-American women in prisons to America, making playing sports alright for women, and helping them get the vote, Kellor’s actions not only impacted others lives, but have impacted ours.  And Kellor’s many significant achievements would put those who seek to ban LGBT representations from public school education on the defensive. 
Even were she not LGBT, Kellor merit inclusion in California’s public schools.  Her exemplary public morals make her much hard for opponents of SB48 to dismiss.  Furthermore, having impacted so many disparate areas of interest, she provides teachers ample opportunities to fulfill the law’s mandate. Her having championed service learning and current events means elementary and middle school teachers can announce her accomplishments without much controversy.  And her having focused on immigration means that many in our student population will find work relevant to their lives. Kellor provides an excellent opportunity put a positive representation of LGBT persons in

[i] Watanabe, Teresa, How to Teach Gay Issues in 1st Grade, The Los Angeles Times, Oct. 16, 2011.
[ii] California Department of Education, Foundations of American Political and Social Thought,, 20
[iii] Kellar, Alice, Coldwater Republican, Sept. 15, 1893, 3
[iv] Ibid., 3
[v] Ibid.,  3
[vi] California Department of Education, United States History and Geography: Growth and Conflict, 8.12., 38
[vii] California Department of Education, Reporting Cluster: Foundations of American Political and Social Thought, U.S. 11.5.4,, 4
[viii] Dudley, Gertrude, Kellor, Frances, Athletic Games in the Education of Women, (New York: Henry Holt and Company, 1909), 4
[ix] “Ethical Value of Sports for Women,” American Physical Education Review, Vol. 11, 1906, 165
[x] Freedman, Estelle, Their Sisters’ Keepers: Women’s Prison Reform in America, 1830 – 1930, (Ann Arbor: The University of Michigan Press, 1981), 109
[xi] Female African-American Prisoners,
[xii] Kellor, Frances, Experimental Sociology: Descriptive and Analytic (New York: The MacMillan Company, 1901), 138
[xiii] Ibid., 138
[xiv]  Ibid., 140
[xv] California Department of Education, California State Standards for Grade Eight, United States History and Geography: Growth and Conflict 8.7,, Pg, 36
[xvi] Kellor, Frances, Out of Work: A Study of Employment Agencies: Their Treatment of the Unemployed, and Their Influence Upon Homes and Business (New York: G.  Putnam’s Sons, 1904),  v
[xvii] California Department of Education, The Rise of Industrial America 1877 – 1914,, pg. 106, 114
[xviii] California Department of Education, The Rise of Industrial America (1877 – 1914); The Progressive Era,, pg. 6, pg. 141
[xix] “Red Raids Making Alien Born Panicky,” The Los Angeles Times, Jan. 18, 1920, IV13
[xx] “Women as A Factor In the Political Campaign:  For the First Time in American History Their Active Support Is Openly Sought by All Parties,” New York Times, Sept. 1,1912, SM9
[xxi] Maxwell, William J., “Frances Kellor in the Progressive Era: A Case Study in the Professionalization of Reform,” (Ed.D. diss., Columbia University, 1969),  189
[xxii] “Colonel’s Last Word A Tribute To Women: Because of Them It’s Been a Different Campaign Than Any He Ever Saw, He Says,” New York Times, Nov. 3, 1912, 11
[xxiii] Roosevelt, Theodore, An Autobiography (New York: The MacMillan Company, 1913), 180
[xxiv] Recchiuti, John, Civic Engagement: Social Science and Progressive – Era Reform in New York City, (Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press, 2006)
[xxv] California Department of Education, Students evaluate and take and defend positions on the scope and limits of rights and obligations as democratic citizens, the relationships among them, and how they are secured. 12.2.4,, 55
[xxvi] Ibid., 55
[xxvii] “Bundle Day in New York,” The Independent, 15 Feb. 1915, 236
[xxviii]  Frances Kellor to Theodore Roosevelt, Feb. 3, 1915 Vol. 82, Reel 198, Series 1, TRP, Collections of the Manuscript Division, Library of Congress
[xxix] “Social Era Begun at Hotel de Gink,” New York Times, Feb. 19, 1915, 6
[xxx] “To Teach Patriotism,” New York Times, May 30, 1915, 4
[xxxi] “Americanization Day in 150 Communities,” The Survey 34, no. 18 (1915):  390
[xxxii] California Department of Education, History – Social Science K – 12 Goals and Curriculum Strands,, Pg 20 
[xxxiii] Ibid.,  5
[xxxiv] Ibid.,  4
[xxxv] Ibid.,  4
[xxxvi] Research Department of the Committee for Immigrants, “Citizenship Syllabus: Many People’s, One Nation, America,” 4
[xxxvii] California Department of Education, Service-Learning-Curriculum Resources,, accessed 2/3/12
[xxxviii] “Hughes Women Sing as they Reach City,” New York Times, Nov. 4, 1916, 6
[xxxix] “Tells Why Hughes Asks Women’s Aid,” New York Times, Aug. 7, 1916, 9
[xl] “Hughes Gets Plans of his Women Aids,” New York Times, July 8, 1916, 5
[xli] Kellor, “Women in the Campaign,” Yale Review, Jan. 1917, 11
[xlii] Kellor, “Women in the Campaign,” Yale Review, Jan. 1917, 11
[xliii] California Department of Education, Women in Our History,, 123
[xliv] California Department of Education, World History, Culture, and Geography: The Modern World,, 51
[xlv] California Department of Education, People who Make a Difference, Grade Two,, 47

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